Widely considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence, Turing gained worldwide acclaim during World War II for breaking German ciphers and decoding the Enigma machine. He also created one of the first models for a stored-program computer, the ACE, while working at England’s National Physical Laboratory.
Turing made major advances in mathematical biology and electromechanics, all before the age of 41. In 1952, a criminal prosecution began as a result of Turing’s homosexuality, which was still illegal in the United Kingdom. As an alternative to prison, Turing chose to undergo treatment with female hormones, otherwise known as chemical castration.
Shortly thereafter, just after his 42nd birthday, Turing committed suicide by cyanide poisoning.
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